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1852: John Brown Shipbuilding and Engineering is formed in Glasgow. The company moves to Clydebank in 1872.
20 September 1854: Arctic explorer Dr John Rae sails from Canada for England with news of the fate of the missing expedition of Sir John Franklin.
24 December 1856: The death of geologist and writer, Hugh Miller.
14 October 1859: The new water supply to Glasgow from Loch Katrine is opened.
26 January 1861: The One O'Clock Gun is fired at Edinburgh Castle for the first time.
9 July 1867: Scotland's first football club, Queen's Park, is formed.
22 November 1869: The clipper "Cutty Sark" is launched at Dumbarton on the River Clyde.
28 November 1872 : The scientist, mathematician and writer, Mary Somerville dies in Italy.
30 November 1872: The world's first football international is held between Scotland and England, ending in a goalless draw.
1 May 1873: Death of David Livingstone, one of the most famous of the European missionaries and explorers.
1872: The Education Act provides for schooling of all children aged between 5 and 13.
14 February 1876 : Alexander Graham Bell's lawyers file a patent application for the telephone with the US Patent Office.
7 May 1876 : The death of David Bryce, the leading Scottish architect in the Victorian era.
5 August 1876: The missionary Mary Slessor sets sail for Nigeria.
22 October 1877: An explosion in the Blantyre Colliery kills 207 miners in Scotland's worst mining disaster.
5 November 1879: The death of James Clerk Maxwell, one of greatest scientists of any era.
28 December 1879: The Tay Railway Bridge, designed by Thomas Bouch, collapses while being crossed by a train with the loss of 75 lives.
5 February 1881: The death of essayist, satirist, and historian, Thomas Carlyle.
14 October 1881: 189 fishermen, including 129 from Eyemouth are killed when 20 boats are lost in a storm.
17 April 1882: The "Battle of the Braes" takes place on the Isle of Skye over the crofters' refusal to pay their rents until the landowner return traditional grazing rights. Attempts to serve eviction notices by 50 police are met with violent resistance.
3 July 1883: The steamer "Daphne" sinks with the loss of 124 lives on the Clyde during its maiden voyage.
1 July 1884 : Allan Pinkerton, the founder of the Pinkerton Detective Agency and the US Secret Service, dies in Chicago.
1885: The Scottish Office is created as part of the Whitehall government, and with it the post of Secretary of State for Scotland.
24 June 1886: The Crofters Holding Act, sometimes called the "Magna Carta of Gaeldom", is passed, protecting the tenure of crofters.
20 June 1887: The rebuilt Tay Railway Bridge opens.
1888: The Scottish Liberal Association votes for home rule for Scotland.
1888: The Scottish Labour Party is formed by Keir Hardie.
4 March 1890: The Forth Rail Bridge is officially opened, six weeks after the first train crosses the bridge on January 24.
3 December 1894: The death of renowned poet, and author of fiction and travel books, Robert Louis Stevenson.
14 December 1896: The Glasgow District Underground opens for service.
25 March 1897: The Scottish Trades Union Congress is formed.
5 January 1899: The first electric-powered tram in Glasgow begins the replacement of the horse-drawn service.